Capital Goods




The Index of Industrial Production (IIP) for capital goods (base: 2011-12) registered second consecutive year of growth during 2016-17. The growth rate of 3.2 per cent in the index for capital goods was lower than the growth rate in general index of 4.6 per cent.

During 2016-17, the index for manufacture of machinery and equipment n.e.c. (NIC: 28) and the index for manufacture of computer, electronic and optical products (NIC: 26) registered a y-o-y growth of 7.7 per cent and 2.5 per cent, respectively. On the other hand, the index for manufacture of electrical equipment witnessed a decline of (-) 4.5 per cent during the year.


During 2016-17, exports of machinery increased by 6.5 per cent as compared to the previous year to reach US$ 20.2 billion. Imports of machinery during the same period registered a y-o-y decline of (-) 1.4 per cent to reach US$ 32.8 billion. The USA is the largest market for India’s exports of machinery with a share of 15.5 per cent in the total exports of these products. Germany (share of 5.1 per cent), the UK (4.7 per cent), UAE (4.6 per cent), and Turkey (3.5 per cent) were the other top destinations for India’s exports of these products.

Foreign Direct Investments

Capacity of capital goods industry has grown significantly since liberalization, supported by the inward direct investments in the sector. Cumulative foreign direct investments in the capital goods industry amounted to US$ 15.5 billion during April 2000 to June 2017 period. This was nearly 4.5 percent of the total FDI inflows in the country.


Demand in the capital goods sector is currently propelled by the manufacturing, power and mining industries. This demand is expected to rise, keeping in mind the government’s initiatives for infrastructure development. In addition, investments in power, oil and gas extraction, mining and petrochemical are expected to provide a positive boost for the industry. Industrial growth and development in the manufacturing industry will add to the momentum of the capital goods industry.



  • All sectors, except a few pertaining to national security, have been opened up for participation by the private sector, including Foreign Direct Investments.
  • In most sectors, 100 per cent FDI is permitted under the automatic approval route.
  • Tariffs on capital goods and equipment have been lowered to nil or 5 per cent in general.
  • Tax incentives are applicable such as 15 per cent exemption on tax to manufacturing companies that invest more than Rs. 100 crore (US$ 18.4 million) in plant and machinery.
  • Public sector enterprises are being encouraged to leverage their funds for investing in large projects.
  • To make the Capital Goods sector globally competitive, advanced centers of excellence for R&D and technology development are in the process of being established in academic institutions.
  • In the export sector, India has entered into a number of free trade agreements with ASEAN, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, and others.




Companies selling electrical and electronic goods in the European Union (EU) must conform to the EU legislation for electrical and electronic equipment (EEE), which includes:

The Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive (WEEE), which sets out the financial and other responsibilities of EEE producers with regard to the collection and recycling of waste from a broad range of EEE at their end of life.

The Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive (RoHS), which bans the use of certain hazardous substances (such as lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium and some polybrominated flame retardants) in EEE.


China RoHS: “Measures for Administration of the Pollution Control of Electronic Information Products (EIP)”, commonly known as RoHS is intended to restrict the use of hazardous materials in electrical and electronic equipment. All products manufactured on or after March 1st 2007 for sale in China must adhere to stage 1 requirements.

Products imported into the country for the purpose of re-export or for manufacturing of other export products are excluded. The following requirements need to be adhered to:

  • The hazardous substances which come under the ambit of this measure are Lead (Pb), Hexavalent Chromium (Cr6+), Mercury (Hg), Cadmium (Cd), Polybrominated Biphenyls (PBBs) and Polybrominated Diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). If an EIP doesn’t contain any of these, then the following symbol needs to be used:
  • If any of the above mentioned hazardous substance is present above the maximum concentration value, then the following symbol needs to be used, with the number inside it representing the Environmental Friendly Use Period (EFUP):
  • The user manual of the EIP should contain table of names and contents of toxic and hazardous materials if the product contains them in quantities above the maximum concentration values. China’s maximum concentration values are 0.1 percent for all hazardous substances other than cadmium for which the level is set at 0.01 percent.
  • Packaging of EIPs should be in accordance with the GB18455- 2001 standard.

China Compulsory Certification (CCC) mark is required to be obtained by the manufacturers before exporting to or selling products in China. Several electronics product require CCC mark.

South Korea

South Korea promulgated the Act for Resource Recycling of Electrical and Electronic Equipment and Vehicles on April 2, 2007. This regulation has aspects of RoHS and WEEE.

North America

California has passed the Electronic Waste Recycling Act of 2003 (EWRA). This law prohibits the sale of electronic devices after January 1, 2007, that are prohibited from being sold under the EU RoHS directive, but across a much narrower scope that includes LCDs, CRTs, and the like and only covers the four heavy metals restricted by RoHS. EWRA also has a restricted material disclosure requirement. Several other states that have mercury and PBDE bans.

For further details on Regulations applicable in various geographies, refer to this link: