Automobile Sector


 

OVERVIEW

The automobile industry encompasses design, development, manufacturing, marketing and selling of motor vehicles. The industry space is dominated by Two Wheelers that account for 81% of the total domestic market share, followed by Passenger Vehicles which account for 13% and Commercial vehicles as well as Three wheelers which together make up 6% of the remaining share. The industry contributes 7.1% to India’s GDP and 22% to India’s manufacturing GDP. It provides employment to 30 million people in the country.

Production

India is the largest manufacturer of two-wheelers, three-wheelers and tractors in the world. India is the fifth largest vehicle manufacturer overall.

The sale of Passenger Vehicles grew by 7.89 % in FY2018 over the same period last year. Within the Passenger Vehicles, Passenger Cars, Utility Vehicle and Vans grew by 3.33 %, 20.97 % and 5.78 % respectively in FY2018 over the same period last year. The overall Commercial Vehicles segment grew by 19.94 % in FY2018 as compared to the same period last year. Medium & Heavy Commercial Vehicles (M&HCVs) grew by 12.48 % and Light Commercial Vehicles grew by 25.42 % in FY2018, over the same period last year. Three Wheelers sales grew by 24.19 % in FY2018 over the same period last year. Within the Three Wheelers, Passenger Carrier & Goods Carrier sales registered a growth of 28.65 % and 7.83 %, respectively in FY2018 over FY2017. Two Wheelers sales registered a growth at 14.80 % in FY2018 over FY2017. Within the Two Wheelers segment, Scooters and Motorcycles grew by 19.90 % and 13.69 % respectively, while Mopeds declined by (-) 3.48 % in FY2018 over FY2017.

Production Trends
Category 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 % CAGR
Passenger Vehicles 30,87,973 32,21,419 34,65,045 38,01,670 4010373 5.30%
Commercial Vehicles 6,99,035 6,98,298 7,86,692 8,10,253 894551 5.05%
Three Wheelers 8,30,108 9,49,019 9,34,104 7,83,721 1021911 4.24%
Two Wheelers 1,68,83,049 1,84,89,311 1,88,30,227 1,99,33,739 23147057 6.51%
Grand Total 2,15,00,165 2,33,58,047 2,40,16,068 2,53,29,383 2,90,73,892 6.22%
Source: DGCIS

Export

The industry registered a CAGR of 5.32% during 2013-14 to 2017-18. The highest growth was seen in two wheeler vehicles, which registered a CAGR of 6.19% during this period, followed by Commercial vehicles, Passenger vehicles and Three wheeler vehicles which recorded CAGRs of 4.68%, 4.62% and 1.51% respectively.

Automobile Exports Trends
Category 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 % CAGR
Passenger Vehicles 5,96,142 6,21,341 6,53,053 7,58,727 7,47,287 4.62%
Commercial Vehicles 77,050 86,939 1,03,124 1,08,271 96,867 4.68%
Three Wheelers 3,53,392 4,07,600 4,04,441 2,71,894 3,81,002 1.51%
Two Wheelers 20,84,000 24,57,466 24,82,876 23,40,277 28,15,016 6.19%
Grand Total 31,10,584 35,73,346 36,43,494 34,79,169 40,40,172 5.32%
Source: SIAM

Foreign Direct Investments

The Indian government encourages foreign investment in the automobile sector and allows 100% FDI under the automatic route. It is a fully delicensed industry and free imports of automotive components are allowed. Moreover, the government has not laid down any minimum investment criteria for the automobile industry.

Outlook

Rising disposable income, growing urbanization, expanding rural market and government initiatives like Smart Cities, promoting the country as the Research & Development (R&D) centre by setting up of National Automotive Testing and R&D Infrastructure Project (NATRiP), and Automotive Mission Plan 2016-26 are dominant factors that will propel the Auto industry in India.


 

SELECT GOVERNMENT INCENTIVES

  • The Automotive Mission Plan 2016-26 (AMP 2026), the collective vision of Government of India (Government) and the Indian Automotive Industry, emphasizes on where the Vehicles, Auto components, and Tractor industries should reach over the next ten years in terms of size, contribution to India’s development, global footprint, technological maturity, competitiveness, and institutional structure and capabilities.
  • To make India as R&D hub, the government has formed National Automotive Testing and R&D Infrastructure Project (NATRiP). The project with a total cost of USD 585 million will enable the industry to adopt and implement global performance standards.
  • Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of (Hybrid &) Electric Vehicles in India (FAME India Scheme)- The National Electric Mobility Mission Plan 2020 was unveiled in 2013 as a part of the FAME India scheme for a period of 6 years till 2020. It will support the hybrid and electric vehicles market development and its manufacturing eco-system to achieve self-sustenance at the end of this period. Government of India is committed to instill confidence in the industry and allow them to plan required investments and create needed capacities. The scheme focuses in the areas of Technology development, Demand Creation, Pilot Projects and Charging Infrastructure. During 2017-18, following amendments were made in the FAME-India scheme:
    1. The Phase-I of the scheme was further extended for a period of 6 months i.e. upto 30.09.2017 and “Mild Hybrid” technology was excluded from benefits under FAME India scheme
    2. Electric 3W (with maximum speed not exceeding 25 km/hr) has also been included for availing incentive under the scheme
    3. L5 category has been included in the retro fitment category
    4. Fully Electric Bus has also been included for demand incentive under the scheme Rs 260 crores were allotted for supporting market development for hybrid/ electric vehicles and manufacturing eco-system through provision of subsidy for purchase of e-vehicles, charging infrastructure and supporting R&D for indigenous development of key components of e-vehicles. Also, government provided subsidy for introduction of over 1000 e-vehicles by Charging Infrastructure in the public transport (buses, taxis, 3-wheelers) in 11 cities.
  • Development Council for Automobile and Allied Industries: Grant is provided to Development Council for Automobile and Allied Industries (DCAAI) for the completion of electric mobility project and for the new & ongoing Research and Development projects related to setting up facilities for testing the vehicles as per changing safety and emission standards at the research institutes i.e. Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI), Pune, Vehicle Research and Development Establishment (VRDE), Ahmednagar and Central Institute of Road Transport (CIRT), Pune and other R&D institutes in the country.

 

SELECT EXPORT MARKET REGULATIONS

Europe

Automotive products are regulated through EU laws for vehicle type-approval. To improve the level playing field, trust of consumers and reduce administrative burden, all policy proposals are subject to competitiveness proofing.

The EU Regulation requires immediate and ongoing action from automobile manufacturers and suppliers. Under REACH, substances manufactured or imported on their own or in mixtures, as well as substances intended to be released from articles, need to be registered according to the REACH timeline once a certain yearly tonnage is exceeded.  Additionally, Substances of Very High Concern (SVHCs) may require authorization or may be restricted. SVHCs listed on the Candidate List need to be identified in articles and communicated throughout the supply chain and to the consumer if certain criteria are met. Continued REACH compliance is critical to maintain business continuity for any company doing business, or having customers or suppliers doing business, in the European Economic Area (EEA).

China

China “Automobile RoHS”: “Management Requirements for Vehicle Hazardous Substance and Recyclable Utilization Ratios” (“Requirements”), referred to as China’s “Automobile RoHS” program, is intended to specify that hazardous substance content and recyclability ratios for passenger cars carrying no more than 9 persons (M1 category) meet the specifications set out in two separate standards governing these issues.

New measures concerning restricted-material content and recyclability requirements for certain passenger cars came into effect January 1, 2016. 

According to the regulations, Lead, mercury, hexavalent chromium, polybrominated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers in any homogenous material of the motor vehicle or motor vehicle parts, by mass fraction, should not exceed 0.1%. Cadmium in any homogenous material of the motor vehicle or motor vehicle parts, by mass fraction, should not exceed 0.01%.

South Korea

As per the Article 30 (Permissible Standards of Noises Produced by Manufactured Cars) of the Noise and Vibration Control Act, the noises emitted from manufactured motor vehicles (hereinafter referred to as “manufactured cars”) need to conform to the permissible manufactured car noise standards as determined by the Presidential Decree.

The exhaust gases from automobiles are regulated under Article 46 (kinds of exhaust gases) of Clean Air Conservation Act.

North America

The United States entails vehicle or vehicle parts to conform to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations for emission (EPA) and safety (Department of Transportation) requirements.